Which Are the Best Climbing Plants for Yard Fences?

Fences covered in vines make a lush backdrop to your own garden. Selecting the ideal vine means understanding the terms into which you’re raising the plant. Soil conditions, sunlight pattern and whether you need to give support to this vine prior planting it near a fence all play a role in determining what is ideal for your lawn.

Tolerant

Cross vine (Bignonia capreolata) is a strong utility vine. It prefers sunlight to grow its bright, trumpet-shaped blossoms that grow in groups of two to five, but it may also tolerate shade planting. It isn’t fussy about its soil conditions, growing happily in average soil that drains well. This easy vine also does not need extra support, because cross vine climbs almost anything, using the nails at the conclusion of its tendrils to cling to fence substances. It grows well in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 9.

Tenacious

Carolina jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens), also known as poor man’s string, evening trumpet flower or yellow jessamine, is a robust perennial climbing vine suitable in USDA zones 7 through 8. This vine is almost indestructible, climbing over and up constructions, such as fences, easily and quickly. It prefers sun to bloom well, but also tolerates shade. The vine produces bright yellow blooms set against shiny dark green leavesthat can be particularly attractive when viewed unwanted with its bright red berries. Carolina jessamine is poisonous if ingested.

Unusual Flower

Purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), also referred to as apricot vine, purple passion vine or Maypop, creates intriguing and delicate flowers. The petals of this flower are not solid; rather, they extend from the center of this flower in slim tendrils, lending an airy and delicate quality to the vine. The vine does not require extra support to develop, simply utilizing the fence to advancement vertically. Purple passionflower prefers sunny circumstances, though it also grows in partial shade. Its soil requirements are easy, since it tolerates dry to moist soil. This perennial vine is hardy in USDA zones 7 through 10.

Showy Flowers, But Requires Support

Bright, tubular blossoms in dark coral and red add a pop of colour against your fence line. Trumpet honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens), also called woodbine or coral honeysuckle, is particularly suited to chain link fences, because it requires air circulation to prevent issues with powdery mildew. This climbing perennial vine flowers in spring and red berries follow when the bloom is spent. Trumpet honeysuckle prefers sunlight, although it can tolerate partial shade, and moist soil. When first planted, trumpet honeysuckle needs some training to get it started growing on a fence. This vine grows well in USDA zones 6 through 9.

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When to Slim Shrubs?

Such as the saying goes, “timing is everything,” especially when it comes to cutting plants and shrubs. Pruning at the wrong time could leave plants misshapen, make them vulnerable to disease and damage from winter temperatures, or decrease flowering. Other critical aspects include things like utilizing clean, sharp pruning equipment like shears or loppers and utilizing proper pruning methods to decrease plant damage. Since flowering shrubs form next year’s buds at different times of year, gardeners should time trimming projects according to each plant’s flowering program.

Winter Trimming

Winter is a busy pruning season. In line with “Sunset,” it is an ideal time to trim woody shrubs to keep them from becoming leggy during the growing season. It’s also a great time to prune shrubs that bloom in late summer and autumn. For instance, western mugwort (Artemisia ludoviciana “Valerie Finnis”) is hardy at U.S. Department of Agriculture zones 5 through 10. It grows 1 1/2 to 2 feet tall and blooms from August through September with white flowers. According to the University of California Alameda County Master Gardeners, winter is also a suitable time to prune butterfly bush (Buddleia davidii), California fuchsia (Zauschneria californica) and roses.

Spring Trimming

Although mild-climate gardeners are predominately busy with planting and preparing soil for planting, gardeners who live at frost-prone areas might want to skip pruning frost-tender shrubs in winter. Wait to prune shrubs which could be damaged or killed with a late winter or early spring frost. 1 instance, Mexican bush sage (Salvia leucantha), is hardy in zones 9 through 11. This evergreen tree grows 3 to 6 feet tall and blooms with purple or white flowers from summer until the first frost. For frost-tender plants, the extra branches and increase protects them chilly weather damage. According to North Coast Gardening, other frost-tender plants include Fairy fuchsia (Fuchsia thymifolia) or citrus-bearing plants.

Summer Trimming

Although spring and winter are a busier period for cutting shrubs, summer is the ideal period to shear summer-flowering hedges like boxwood (Buxus “Green Velvet”). Green velvet boxwood is hardy in USDA zones 4 through 9, and it should be pruned following its spring flush of growth has finished to control growth and preserve hedge size. Other candidates for summer parting comprise late-flowering perennials like a double reblooming azalea (Rhododendron “RLH1-2P8” P.P. #21,477). This cultivar, hardy in USDA zones 5 through 9, blooms once in April and again in July. Pruning it before the second bloom would eliminate its buds and stop its second bloom. Similarly, Oakleaf hydrangeas (Hydrangea quercifolia), hardy in USDA zones 5 through 9, should be bloomed after the plant has finished blooming in mid to late summer.

When to Deadhead

Most flowering shrubs gain in the removal of spent blossoms, a procedure commonly called deadheading. Trimming dead flowers could be done anytime during a tree’s blooming season. This type of trimming prevents the tree from utilizing energy to form seed heads, frequently encouraging it to bloom more profusely or bloom for a second time.

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The issue With Using Grow Lights in Greenhouses

When it comes to lighting a greenhouse, nothing works better than natural light. Should you utilize your greenhouse to grow plants in sunlight, or if the construction or placement of the greenhouse limits the light that enters it, you may need supplementary light. Bear in mind that the wrong kind of light can stunt plant growth.

Not Enough Light

A common problem with greenhouse lighting isn’t enough light. If plants don’t get enough light, then they have a tendency to stretch, growing ever greater, seeking more light. Light-starved plants eventually become spindly and top-heavy. Energy that could go into leaves, flowers and fruit goes to stems, and the plant weakens consequently. Getting plants sufficient light entails making certain the artificial lights have a high enough wattage. It also involves ensuring that the light is close enough to the plant. For seedlings especially, the light should be only 1 to 2 inches from the bulb.

Too Much Light

Plants can get too much light. Throughout the afternoon, plants use water and light to make starches and oxygen. At nighttime, the plant converts these starches to sugars and stores them. Among the problems with greenhouse lighting is that it may be left on around the clock to spur fast development, but doing so compromises the health of plants. Plants given an excessive amount of light become pale, sometimes sunburned. A span of roughly eight hours of darkness each night helps plants preserve their wellness.

The Wrong Kind

Plants use mainly red and blue light for photosynthesis. High-pressure sodium lights put out most of their light from the yellow range, which is virtually unusable by plants. Incandescent lights put out broader range of light, but they put out heat, something that may damage little, tender plants. Metal halide and fluorescent tubes have been better options. They’re trendy and efficient and they put outside light the plants can utilize.

Uneven Distribution

Uneven light means some plants will grow well while others languish. Though different plants have different light requirements, generally speaking, greenhouse lighting should provide 20 to 40 watts of light per square foot, spread evenly across the growing surface. That light must also have the ability to reach all the leaves. Plants that are spaced too closely will have some leaves that are shaded all the time.

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Window Box Plants for a Partly Shaded location

Window boxes provide additional planting space around the home while adding curb appeal to the house. If a window box is located in a partly shaded area, there is still enough sunlight to grow most plants. The shallow root space and fast drying ground supply two hurdles that are overcome by choosing plants that do not develop deep roots and perform withstand drought conditions.

Perennial Flowers

Perennial flowers return in the origin every spring, attracting the window box to existence with interesting colours. Cascading hopflower oregano (Origanum libanoticum) grows best in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4 through 10, reaching 1 to 2 feet tall and wide with fragrant, pale-green leaves forming paper-lantern shapes on arching stems. The tiny, rose-pink flowers appear from summer through autumn attracting butterflies and hummingbirds to the window box. “Chi Chi” sturdy pink petunias (Ruellia brittoniana “Chi Chi”) create dark-green, narrow leaves covering the 24-inch-tall comes topped with pink flowers from summer until the end of fall in USDA zones 7 through 10. This tall plant looks great when implanted near the back of the window box.

Evergreen Foliage

Evergreen plants keep their leaves through the winter, providing year-round color. The dwarf asparagus fern (Asparagus densiflorus “Nana”) grows in dense, round clumps 15 inches tall and wide with glowing lime-green, fine needle-like leaves at USDA zones 9 through 11 with white flowers blooming in the spring. “Limelight” licorice plants (Helichrysum petiolare “Limelight”), in USDA plant hardiness zones 9 through 11, climb 1 to 2 feet tall covered with chartreuse-green, velvety leaves and tiny white blooms. This licorice-scented plant spreads up to 6 feet wide unless back to a sensible size.

Semi-Evergreen Flowers

Semi-evergreen plants remain colorful and keep their leaves all year long unless exposed to freezing temperatures. They lose their leaves in winter. “Bowles’ Mauve” wallflowers (Erysimum “Bowles’ Mauve”) create clusters of fragrant pink blossoms blooming from spring until the end of summer on an erect, shrubby, gray-green plant 18 to 24 inches tall and 15 to 18 inches wide in USDA zones 6 through 11. Pink Texas skullcap (Scutellaria suffrutescens) form a 4-inch-tall mound spreading 15 inches wide with green leaves and rose-red flowers appearing all summer long in USDA plant hardiness zones 7 through 10. This plant need watering until it is established and producing new growth. “Wild Thing” fall sage (Salvia greggii “Wild Thing”), at USDA zones 6 through 10, rises coral-pink flowers lasting from spring until the end of autumn on 2- to 3-feet-tall stems. This blossom attracts hummingbirds, and the plant requires clipping to control the length of the stems.

Succulent Foliage

Succulent plants create thick leaves and stems, which store moisture, as an adaption to growing in dry conditions. “Blue Spruce” stonecrop (Sedum reflexum “Blue Spruce”), at USDA plant hardiness zones 3 through 11, creates small, blue, evergreen leaves resembling blue spruce needles and yellow summer flowers on 8-inch-tall stalks. This easy-care plant spreads up to 18 inches wide. Calico kitty crassula (Crassula pellucid “Variegata”) rises 12-inch-long trailing stems covered with variegated leaves in rose, pink, cream and green colours. Find this succulent near the front border of the window box so that the stem may hang over the rim.

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Things to Know Before you take advantage of an Aerator

If your neighbor’s lush lawn provides you green with envy, lawn aeration may be the solution. By changing soil compaction, aeration maintains grass green and healthy. Prior to poke holes on your turf, however, think about the timing and ensure you have the appropriate instrument for the job.

Advantages of Aeration

With the years, the topsoil of a yard gets pushed down and compacted. Even a thin 1/4- to 1/2-inch layer of compacted soil prevents water and nutrients from reaching grass roots and inhibits gas exchange with the surroundings. An aerator removes plugs of soil and matted roots and stems — or thatch — in the turf, creating pores for the movement of water, nutrients, carbon dioxide and oxygen.

Compaction Issues

It’s a great idea to put lawn aeration in your annual to-do list, but there are several scenarios in which aeration is very required. You may need to aerate your yard more often if it’s heavily trafficked frequently by children or pets. If you have had construction or repairs to your home, making the yard a thoroughfare for heavy vehicles, then the soil is probably compacted, and aeration will help the grass recover. A yard in need of aeration may have a spongy, springy feel due to thatch buildup. Cut a strip of sod with a sharp knife so that it is possible to view a cross-section. If the thatch layer isn’t any thicker than 1/2 inch, then aeration is warranted.

When to Aerate

The very best time to aerate your yard is in the early spring while the grass is actively growing, as stated by the University of California. Avoid aerating in the summertime because the heat may damage vulnerable root systems. Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences implies that early fall is another window of opportunity for some types of grass, especially cool-season grasses.

Choosing Your Machine

The kind of aerator you’ll need depends on the size of the yard. Manual aerators the size of pitchforks are offered for small regions, while power-driven, ride-on machinery is better for large lawns. Whatever unit you select, make sure that the tines are hollow. Solid, metal tines will merely exacerbate problems with compaction, warns agronomist John Harper of Penn State College of Agricultural Services.

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Are Pecans Still Good if They ve Fallen In Are & the Tree at the Husk?

A ripe pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) is ready to harvest fall once the husk starts to divide and the nut shell beneath the husk turns brown. Unfortunately, quite a few things can interfere with proper nut formation and formation, causing nuts to drop out of the tree. In most cases of fruit drop, the nut beef has not fully shaped, so the nut is not edible. It’s damaged or doesn’t taste good, although the nut meat has shaped. Pecan is hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 9.

Historical Pecan Drop

Occasionally pecans fall out of the tree in the summer while they’re still small. This normally indicates poor pollination. Pecans are dependent on good weather throughout the time when pecan catkins shed their pollen as well as the pollen grains land on the blossoms. Heavy rains can interfere with pollination, and female and male blossoms can bloom resulting in fruits. Additionally, it is possible that a good tree is not of pecan nearby, for your variety. These small fruits won’t even possess a nut if that is the case.

Drought-Related Pecan Drop

Pecans are a massive nut and require plenty of water to fill the nut meat out. The blossoms won’t have the ability to complete development if water is short in late spring and early summer, and small fruits fall off the tree in July and August. Since the nut meat has not fully formed these pecans that are green are not usable. To stop this kind of loss, supplement rainfall with irrigation during dry periods. A tree might require a weekly watering of 1 to 2 inches throughout nut creation.

Nutrient Deficiencies

Nutrient deficiencies can occur at any moment throughout nut creation, especially in trees that have a massive load of nuts that are creating. Trees deficiency either nitrogen or zinc. Often fallen nuts will have a smaller-than-usual stem end that indicates a lack issue. These nuts are not fully developed. Fertilize pecan trees at mid to late February with a fertilizer, to protect against this type of nut drop. Employ 4 lbs of fertilizer for each 1 inch of trunk diameter measured 4 1/2 feet. Scatter the fertilizer evenly beneath the tree, heading from the drip line.

Stink Bug Damage

Green to stink when they feed pecans that have unhardened 18, nut drop is caused by bugs. The bugs insert their mouthparts inject a saliva, and suck up the dissolved cells. This results in pit drop, the nut beef that is growing is dissolved and turns black where. When bugs feed pecans using a shell, discolored spots that are circular form on the kernel, which can be bitter in these regions. The nut doesn’t drop off the tree, and the damage is detected if you crack open the nut. Control stink bugs by cutting down the stands of weeds that they conceal in.

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What Type of Flower Bed for Hollyhocks?

Summer-flowering hollyhocks (Alcea rosea) develop best in well-prepared flower beds with rich, evenly moist ground, so taking the time to prepare the site before planting might enhance both flowering and plant health. Although repeated in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 3 through 9, hollyhocks are usually treated as biennials because older plants frequently fall victim to fungal rust. Hollyhock stems and sap can cause skin irritation, so wear gloves when planting or tending the plants.

Picking a Site

When deciding on a flower bed, pick a website that receives full, all-day sun and drains well. Avoid busy areas with poor air flow, because that can raise the odds of respiratory and rust diseases. Hollyhocks grow 5 to 6 feet tall, typically, with some varieties reaching 8 feet. Place the bed so the tall hollyhocks do not block sunlight to neighboring low-growing plants. Hollyhocks perform well when placed in front a wall or fence and their height can also supply a living display.

Soil Planning

Deep, well-drained dirt that is full of organic matter provides the very best growing conditions for hollyhocks, but they are able to survive in most soil types. Till deeply before you plant, splitting the ground to 16 inches deep. Hollyhock roots can penetrate 30 inches or deeper into the ground, so deep tilling creates a better rooting zone. Remove all weeds and their roots from the website, and any weeds growing nearby, since weeds compete with hollyhocks for moisture and nutrients and also the weeds might also harbor fungal spores.

Amending Wisely

Compost adds some nutrients and improves soil quality. Adding 2 to 4 inches of aged compost prior to planting can also improve drainage in dense dirt whilst raising the moisture-holding ability in sandy or rocky sites. Spread the compost over the lawn bed to the desired thickness before planting. Till it in to the top 12 to 16 inches of dirt and then smooth the surface of the bed with a rake. In especially hard or sandy soil, add a 6-inch layer of compost. You do not need to bring any additional fertilizer before you plant the hollyhocks.

All About Spacing

Good spacing increases air circulation and can help prevent rust issues. Spacing requirements vary depending on the expected mature size of the specific hollyhock variety, but spacing plants 18 inches apart works nicely for most types. Make the bed large enough to hold the number of hollyhocks you have planned while providing enough room to distance them 18 inches apart in all directions. After planting, cover the dirt with a 2-inch layer of mulch to keep down weeds and conserve soil moisture.

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The Way to Take Care of Pristine Roses

‘Pristine’ roses, a hybrid tea rose, yield ivory blossoms that are tinged with pink. The blossoms can grow up to 6 inches round and bloom amid vivid green stems that can reach 6 to 7 ft in height. Pristine roses thrive in U.S. Department of Agriculture zones 5 through 9, but they’re high-maintenance and require extra care to bloom year after year.

Care

Pristine roses thrive in soil that is moist. Give your roses around 1 inch of water per week. Water Pristine rose bushes at the bottom to ensure nearly all the water reaches the roots. This may prevent the rose bush from becoming wet, which might cause fungus to grow on the plant’s leaves. Spread compost or mulch around your Pristine rose bush to help hold moisture in. Add manure to maintain the coating between 1 and 2 inches thick or more compost. This can help encourage these high-maintenance blossoms to continue blooming throughout the summer.

Growth

Prune bush rose to encourage new growth. Cut off dead or damaged stalks from early spring when new growth is beginning. Remove dead or wilted blossoms once your roses have started to bloom. This promotes roses. Fertilize Pristine roses often through the summer to help encourage development. Use.

Pests and Weeds

Remove from round Pristine roses as soon as they are noticed by you. Weeds can suck on nutrients and the moisture in the blossoms. Bush rose because the plant can be damaged by them immediately. Watch rose bushes. If needed an insecticide to help prevent spider mite damage. You could have problems with aphids, whiteflies and thrips. Apply insecticide necessary to control these pests and protect against harm.

Additional Tips

Proceed to water Pristine roses although the ground freezes, but reduce watering since the weather turns cooler. Fertilize your plant subsequently utilize and with routine increased an additional period to fertilizer in September. Stop fertilizing roses and then allow them to go dormant.

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How to Grow Tea Olives From Cuttings

Known for its flowers that are fragrant, the tea olive tree is hardy in zones 8 to 10. Originally from Asia, it is now used in areas where winter temperatures don’t fall below 10 degrees. Its blossoms, with all the fragrance of apricot, a ripe peach, oranges or jasmine, can look many times a year, such as on a warm winter day.

Have a cutting early winter when growth has slowed. Cut at a 6- to 8-inch stem bit just above a leaf node, the place. Remove leaves in the bottom half of the stem. In rooting hormone dip the reduction that is fresh.

Fill a pot with an equal mixture of moisten and moss. Insert the leafless half of the cutting to the medium. Cover edge and pot using a plastic bag that is transparent, and fasten the bag. Keep the medium moist by adding water to the saucer.

Check for roots in the spring. Repot a cutting to potting soil, allowing the tree before planting it into its permanent garden place to grow stronger. Tea olives like full sunlight to partial shade and dirt that is well-drained, wealthy and acidic. Fertilize using a complete fertilizer containing nitrogen in the spring.

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Fall Is Calling: What to Do On Your October Garden

I like having options — from which taste of tea to drink after lunch to that course I’ll take to walk home. Gardening this month is just the same. Whether you’re after garden chores or perhaps some seasonal puttering, it is all about choosing your own route.

You can prep soil for spring planting, divide blossoms and transplant perennials, even tuck in more cool-season edibles. Alternatively, you can simply love fall’s grandeur and put off some of this year’s more tedious tasks. Let fallen leaves deliver hearty mulch for your own lawns and eliminate, for the time being, on cutting spent summer and fall crops. Instead, take some time and watch the leaves change. It is your backyard, so appreciate it. Here’s what you can do in your backyard this October.

Find your October backyard checklist:
California | Central Plains | Great Lakes | Mid-Atlantic | Northeast
Pacific Northwest | Rocky Mountains | Southeast | Southwest | Texas

California. Garden editor Bill Marken suggests potting shrubs and trees to get a permanent and festive seasonal touch.

“Pomegranates symbolize fall in Mediterannean climates,” Marken writes. “Like ancient Christmas ornaments, the fat, round reddish fruits hang heavy on spindly branches together with little leaves turning an autumn yellow. To get a container, look for a dwarf variety such as ‘Nana’, showing fall foliage and tiny reddish fruits if you’re lucky.”

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Donna Lynn – Landscape Designer

Southwest. Water management remains important this season. “Continue to monitor and reset the timers on any controllers you might have, especially in the low and middle zones. As temperatures fall, decrease the water required,” writes New Mexico landscape designer David Cristiani.

“In case you are planning a landscape to get a barren area or for a place outside plant roots, create water harvesting chances to gain plantings and a few visual interest by installing subtle basins, swales and berms away from constructions, where lush plantings are needed,” he says.

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J. Peterson Garden Design

Texas. It is not too late for fall edibles. “Cool-season veggies are so plentiful and nutritious, so try to tuck in a few new ones this season,” writes landscape designer Jenny Peterson. “Broccoli, turnips, lettuce, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, lettuce, cabbage, collards and other greens can be planted today. If you are anticipating a hard freeze, consider adding some row cover to protect your veggies but otherwise these crops will take the crisper weather stride and give you months of create.”

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Jocelyn H. Chilvers

Rocky Mountains. “Planning to put in a new vegetable or flower garden next spring? Now’s a fantastic time to prepare the dirt,” writes Colorado landscape designer Jocelyn Chilvers. “Use organic adjustments to boost water- and – nutrient-holding capacity and to improve aeration and water stream. Adding alterations now allows you to work in the backyard while the soil is relatively dry, thus preventing the possibility of soil compaction that can occur if you try to perform it during the rainy months of spring. Come springtime the dirt will be prepared to plant.”

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Le jardinet

Northwest. “Refresh your container gardens with a selection of winter-hardy evergreen shrubs, perennials and seasonal colour stains,” says landscape designer Karen Chapman.

For a festive fall arrangement, she says that “little conifers, bright spurge (Euphorbia spp) and evergreen sedums are simple candidates for containers — especially when dressed up with a couple cheerful pansies.”

It is also time to plant spring-blooming bulbs — in containers. “Dwarf daffodils, hyacinths and crocuses are simply a couple of the options,” Chapman says.

Revealed: ‘Princess Irene’ tulips are stunning with ‘Peach Flambe’ coral bells (Heuchera).

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Benjamin Vogt / Monarch Gardens

Central Plains. Wondering what to do with that dropped foliage? “Do not rake leaves; mulch them with a mower,” writes Nebraska garden consultant Benjamin Vogt. “Those finely ground leaves are free fertilizer for lawns. If you’d rather rake, toss the leaves to garden beds over winter and early spring, then they’ll break down completely and add rich topsoil. Perhaps you’ll even want to ‘steal’ unwanted bags of these from the neighbors’ driveways.”

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Barbara Pintozzi

Great Lakes. “While the fall colour often continues into November, the big show comes from October, as revealed with this sumac (Rhus copallina),” writes Illinois garden coach Barbara Pintozzi. “Foliage’s dramatic color change is the result of cool nights and bright days.”

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Paintbox Garden

Northeast. Transplant and divide plants on mild, cloudy days. “Rejuvenate ornamental grasses through branch,” writes Vermont landscape consultant Charlotte Albers. “It is a big job — especially if they’re big clumps of grass (Miscanthus spp) — so be sure that you own a pruning saw for cutting through the dense root fibers. Discard the middle of plant and cut the outer parts into segments for replanting.”

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Amy Renea

Mid-Atlantic. “Herbs are plentiful all fall, but they’ll disappear sooner than you can say ‘Jack’ when frost comes,” says garden author Amy Renea. “Harvest mint, lemon balm, rosemary and other people to keep them for winter. Dry the blossoms, chop and freeze them or use them in soaps for new herbs.”

Renea suggests “making your own tea mixes for winter. I combine stevia (revealed) with various herbs for exceptional and cheap teas. So long as I have new herbs, however, I’ll brew up a batch every single evening before my luck runs out.”

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Gardening with Confidence®

Southeast. When prepping the garden for winter, “Do not be so quick to clean up,” says North Carolina backyard author Helen Yoest. “The remains of this summer and fall garden give shelter, cover and food for wildlife, while also adding winter interest to garden beds.”

Revealed here “is a praying mantis egg case I discovered one year while cutting my backyard,” she continues. “It was at this point I learned to slow down my fall pruning before the spring, when the leaves were cleared away and overwintering wildlife was easier to view.”

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