Concrete Block Styles

Concrete masonry units, or CMUs, form the building blocks of many constructions. They are a less expensive alternative than poured concrete, are available in a variety of fashions, and a few manufacturers offer a selection of colors other than gray. The face, or even exposed front facet of the concrete cube, may be smooth or it might have a layout element, like texture. Two common uses for CMUs are foundations and retaining walls.

ATSM Classifications

The American Society for Testing and Materials, or ATSM, designates CMU types. ATSM C 90 blocks are acceptable for load-bearing wall installation, while ATSM C 129 is for non-load-bearing walls. The standard size CMU is an 8-by-8-by-16-inch cube. Half blocks can be found in all fashions so that you do not have to cut them. Some blocks are solid, while others have open places within their center and ATSM sets minimum thicknesses for almost any CMU with an opening in its middle. ATSM also establishes that the water resistance of almost any lock and designates a few blocks as waterproof, which means that they are acceptable for outdoor installations. Blocks also receive passion retardation ratings from ATSM.

Split-Faced Blocks

Split-faced CMUs give a wall the overall look of natural stone. The production process moulds two blocks together, then splits them apart. The splitting procedure leaves a rough surface and also exposes the rock aggregate used in the concrete mix. Blocks are available with the rough surface on either side or on one side only. Some manufacturers let you personalize the colour of the aggregate used in the blocks. The rough surfaces are perfect to use on walls in which you do not want graffiti because the surface is difficult to paint.

Vertical Scores

Scored CMUs give the illusion of using more blocks than you really use. You can align the shallow vertical marks cut into the face of the blocks in a number of patterns. Standard vertically scored blocks have two, three, five or seven vertical lines etched into their faces.

Ribbed Blocks

Ribbed CMUs are created by molding the concrete in fluted molds. The moulds create vertical ribs along the face of the cube. Blocks have four, six or eight ribs. The ribs might have rounded edges or they may be squared. You must align the ribs during installation. It is difficult to get rid of excess mortar that’s caught from the ribs, so you must take particular care to maintain the faces clean when setting ribbed CMUs.

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How Foreclosure Delaying Services Work

Struggling homeowners that want to keep their homes have several options for delaying foreclosure. As the number of foreclosures nationwide increased throughout the housing market fall, more foreclosure delay or “property retention services” and businesses came into existence. Foreclosure delay providers utilize every lawful way, including filing suits, to put off a homeowner’s foreclosure for as long as possible. With sufficient time, a homeowner in foreclosure may have the ability to block the procedure.

Nonjudicial Foreclosure Delay

Most foreclosure delay providers utilize lawyers to challenge bank foreclosure procedures by searching for foreclosure errors. Foreclosure delay providers in California, for instance, may challenge foreclosing lenders above lost paperwork and lost promissory notes. But states like California allow nonjudicial or non-court-ordered foreclosures using trustees, and such trustees generally take good care to avoid legal errors in foreclosures.


Judicial foreclosure is the other form of foreclosure employed with lenders. In judicial or court-facilitated vandalism, foreclosure delay support lawyers work to delay foreclosure instances employing procedural challenges. Normally, foreclosure delay service lawyers first record written answers for their clients, which can buy an additional 30 to 60 days. In addition they record for continuances or time to prepare foreclosure guards for their clients. Judges often grant these types of continuances.


Legal struggles to foreclosure cases filed by lenders are common delaying tactics. Legal challenges in foreclosure cases comprise for authority, especially when out of state lenders are involved. Foreclosure delay service lawyers challenging lenders over authority usually ask that county courts move these cases to the federal courts. Lawyers may also challenge a lender’s legal standing by forcing the lender to prove it really possesses the loan.

Buying Homeowners Time

Foreclosure delay providers are just that — and they don’t generally get foreclosures canceled altogether. They can buy critical time for homeowners facing imminent foreclosure to find workable foreclosure alternatives. With sufficient time, a homeowner facing foreclosure could lineup mortgage reinstatement funding using state-offered grants, for example. Foreclosure delay also can give struggling homeowners sufficient time to find buyers or at least an alternate living arrangement.

Other Alternatives

Even though it can be a drastic measure, filing for bankruptcy can delay a busy foreclosure case. Both Chapter 7 liquidation and Chapter 13 reorganization bankruptcy feature automatic stays that halt all creditor collection activities, including foreclosure sales. Using Chapter 13 bankruptcy, a homeowner could even permanently stop foreclosure working with a three- to five-year repayment program. Through Chapter 13 bankruptcy’s repayment period, delinquent mortgage payments plus lender lending costs can be gradually mortgages and repaid reinstated.

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Are Foreclosure Deeds Public Knowledge?

While they’re unfortunate, foreclosures are very common. When you take out a mortgage loan to get a house, the lender assumes the risk that you won’t repay the loan. To safeguard against these loses, the lender retains the right to foreclose on your property and market it for the unpaid loan balance. Every state has its rules and regulations concerning the foreclosure process. Many states, such as California, promote every step including the last foreclosure deed.

Notice of Default

As soon as you default on your mortgage payments, the lender contacts you about the status of your loan. In California, the lender has to offer some form of assessment of your financial situation or information that will help you to prevent a full foreclosure. However, if you can not make a payment in a specific period after the first touch — typically 30 days — the lender issues a notice of default. It is filed on public record with the county recorder’s office where the property is situated.

Notice of Sale

Once the notice of default is filed, the lender should wait a specific period for you to remit a payment — generally that is about 90 days — before the lender can actually hold a sale to the property. If you are unable to pay back what you owe within that span, the lender issues a notice of sale. This file is also filed on public record, as well as being posted on the outside of your house and at the courthouse. The note is also advertised in a local paper. Normally the sale is scheduled for about 21 days after the notice will be filed.

Foreclosure Deed

Anyone can attend the foreclosure sale and bid on the property. Commonly, the lender enters the starting bid at the sum of the unpaid loan balance. The winning bidder is issued a deed granting him possession of this property. This deed has to be filed on public record. In a upcoming title investigation, the bidder will look as the property’s owner or title holder. If no one bids on the property, the lender takes possession.


Most foreclosures in California have been nonjudicial — done without going to court — so the trustee working on behalf of the lender manages the foreclosure proceedings and conducts the sale. He’ll also issue and sign the foreclosure deed if the sale is successful. At times, judicial foreclosures, which involve a lawsuit, will happen. In this event the entire case a part of public record, exactly as with any other lawsuit.

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What Do Eagle Wood Carvings Represent in Antique Furniture?

The founding fathers of the United States adopted the eagle as a symbol for freedom, stamina, power and higher objective, applying it to the first official seal representing the new country. It instantly became a favored motif on home furnishings from the late 18th century through the present. Its adaptability created the majestic eagle in the home in both formal and informal settings, so wooden eagle carvings started to adorn tables, mirrors and pediments in residences.

The Eagle Soars

On precisely the exact same day that the United States declared its independence as a country, July 4, 1776, the first Continental Congress appointed a three-man committee, consisting of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams and Benjamin Franklin, to design a seal for the new country. Their design was not accepted, nor was the layout of another committee appointed in 1780. Ultimately, in 1782, a third committee presented a layout featuring an eagle in the crest, and Charles Thompson created a fourth layout that combined elements of all three earlier ideas, together with the eagle front and center. This version, with some revisions by William Barton has been approved in June of 1782, which instantly made its way to decor and furnishings items in the house.

Symbolic Message of the Eagle

The option of the eagle has been an suitable emblem for its fledgling country, since this bird had been previously connected with jurisdiction, power and governments. The Greek god Zeus and the Roman god Jupiter, the most significant leaders of the gods, were symbolized by the eagle. Thompson’s last version of the great seal featured a bald eagle, considered at the time to have a range confined to North America. Eagles were embroidered onto quilts, etched onto tea urns and added to paintings, as a symbol of freedom and strength, as noted by President John F. Kennedy in his letter to the National Audubon Society in 1961, “The fierce beauty and proud independence of the great bird aptly reflects the strength and independence of America.”

Following the Revolutionary War

The Revolutionary War ended in 1783, and the brand new country adopted logos of unity, in public areas and in personal spaces. The easy, elegant form of the eagle became the most dominant emblem in the layouts. The eagle had been recognized as a symbol of military success. A post-war group formed by Continental and French officers — the Society of the Cincinnati — adopted it as their symbol. Named after the Roman warrior Cincinnatus, who rejected a lifestyle of power and returned to simple farm living in times of peace, this group seen the eagle as blending references into the power of Jupiter and the nature of Cincinnatus.

Refining Eagle Designs

Early versions of this eagle symbol depicted an immature, rather awkward bird with a smaller wingspan. In later interpretations the eagle developed into a more majestic, imperialistic beast having a wide, powerful wingspan. Part of this eagle’s continuing popularity stems from its capacity to embellish the formal gilded wood furniture layouts as effectively as a humble butter stamp in a colonial kitchen. Wherever it appears, the eagle conveys a message of patriotism, strength and unity.

Diverse Cultural References

Along with its particular significance in the United States, the eagle often seems as a design theme in different nations. As an example, the day following his coronation in 1804, Napoleon ordered an eagle secured to the peak of every flag team in his army as a symbol of success. The eagle is connected to the sun in several cultures like those of the ancient Aztecs and the Native American peoples of North America. Aristotle and Pliny wrote of the eagle being the only animal capable of gazing directly into the sun. The writers of early bestiaries explained eagles as having the power of eternal youth. Other varied cultures, including those of Rome, Wales, Sumer and Syria associate eagles with death as well as the journeys of souls.

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How to Dress Up an Old Chandelier With Beads

Give an old, uninteresting chandelier a fresh new look by dressing it up with beads. Translucent glass beads enable the light to shine through for extra sparkle. If using clear or translucent beads, pair them with UV-resistant monofilament fishing line to create permanent beaded chandelier strands. Peruse the jewelry department at your local craft shop to find an abundance of beads and jewelry findings, perfect for creating your own chandelier adornments. Some shops sell pre-made strands of beads and baubles; just add rings or hooks to secure them to your chandelier.

Arcs of Elegance

To emulate the elegance of a crystal chandelier without the crystals, hang arcing strands clear glass beads from the arms of this chandelier on around the surface, using jump rings and jewelry hooks to secure the strands to the chandelier string or part of their steel beneath the individual light sockets. Alternate the bead size on every strand, using large beads close to the bottom, smaller ones at the top, for extra dimension. Insert a wine- or champagne-inspired appeal to a chandelier utilizing translucent glass beads in shades of crimson, ginger or a pale pink. Mix in some synthetic grape leaves, connected to the chandelier arms with floral wire, for extra effect. For another take on elegance, opt for pearl-style opalescent beads in shades of white or silver, pink or blue onto a chandelier of an identical color. Keep all beads and embellishments away in the light bulbs, sockets and electric connections for security.

Colors of Design

For a candelabra-style chandelier with a small shade over every light, jazz up the shades with their particular strands of beads. Use several bracelet-length strands of clear glass-sphere beads on each shade, attaching one end of every strand several inches in the other end all along the underside rim of a shade so the strands create gentle, limp arcs. Attach small earring hooks or jump rings to the conclusion of every strand to poke it through a cloth or paper shade, or drill tiny holes across the bottom rims of metal shades after first removing the shades in the chandelier. Produce ombre-style arcs using light and dark translucent beads at the same strands, like wine through pale pink or clear. For a fringe effect, attach a few glass beads to a mind pin at one end, a French earring hook at the other, hooking up the dangling adornments each inch or so, equally spaced around every shade.

The Rainbow Room

Turn a chandelier — even a non-functioning one — to your vibrant ceiling accessory for a child’s or teen’s room utilizing metallic Mardi-Gras-style beaded necklaces. Snip each loop once to flip a necklace to a strand; subsequently apply a dab of hot glue to the arm of a chandelier, just below the light socket area. Wrap the strand of beads tightly around the chandelier arm, then working your way up the chandelier. Add more hot glue every few inches and again at the conclusion of every strand. Create a rainbow effect by working your way up every chandelier arm with a string of red, then orange, then yellow, on through the spectrum, or create stripes using two of the very same colors repeatedly up every arm of this chandelier. Wrap the broader area, where the chandelier arms meet, with beads too. For an ocean- or sky-inspired room, then wrap on the chandelier with varying shades of blue, like a sea-green strand for water.

Natural Charm

Supply a chandelier a nature-inspired makeover using beads made of wood, seed pods or nuts. Beads made of coconut shell, betel nut or kukui nut reveal patterns reminiscent of animal prints to get an exotic touch. Wrap the chandelier arms tightly with strands of small, round beads to hide the metal frame. Use strands of wooden or shell beads to make arcs between the arms and the top of the chandelier, then selecting a few bigger coordinating beads to make earring-style dangling decorations for every strand.

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Mortgage Tax Rules

The IRS allows homeowners to deduct some of the expenses related to purchasing a mortgage. How much you can deduct will be dependent on your personal circumstances, such as income level and marital status, and the loan size and final prices of the loan. Knowing the IRS rules on mortgage tax deductions, can help you maximize the tax savings your home supplies.

Mortgage Interest Tax Deduction

The IRS allows you to declare all mortgage payments as long you submit a Form 1040 and itemize the deductions on Schedule A. If you have a 30-year, $150,000 mortgage with a 6.5 percent interest rate, for instance, you will pay over $41,300 in interest payments throughout the life of the loan, which you can deduct from the income tax.

Mortgage Factors

A mortgage point is prepaid interest borrowers pay to reduce their mortgage interest rate. Each point costs 1 percent of the amount of the loan and reduces your interest rate by anywhere from 1/8 to 1/4 point. You may either declare some of the points paid annually over the life of the mortgage (the normal method), or declare that the entire price of mortgage points from the year you paid them. To calculate the part of factors deductible for any specific year, divide the entire cost by the term, in years, of your mortgage. If you pay $4,000 in points on a 10-year mortgage, you also can deduct $400 annually. For the IRS to permit you to declare the entire price of points in 1 year, you need to meet nine prerequisites detailed in IRS Topic 504 (see Resources). As an example, the IRS requires the payment of points to become an established banking practice in your area, and the mortgage must be secured by your main residence.

The Mortgage Forgiveness Debt Relief Act and Debt Cancellation

When a lender forecloses on your mortgage, the foreclosure sale price of your house might not cover what you owe. Your lender may forgive the equilibrium, however the IRS views canceled debt because of taxable income. The Mortgage Forgiveness Debt Relief Act allows you to exclude canceled or forgiven debt from the income tax. To qualify for this relief, the overall canceled debt shouldn’t exceed $2 million, the house must be your main house, and the reason behind foreclosure must be a fall in your house’s value or personal financial difficulties.

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